Background of Rational Criteria

With the loving kindness of his majesty Bhumibol Adelaide and her majesty Queen Sirikit, they have been hard
working for their people. They for instance, went to every parts of Thailand located in the remote areas for solving
their peoples' problems and creating many favorable projects.

The implementation of The Wilderness Society Organization of Thailand or The project "Pa Rak  Nam" (Forests Love
Water) has been based on H.M. the queen's initiatives. She believes that forests and water can not be separated; hence,
the project philosophy is that "the king is water, the queen in the forests who always pay respect to water".

It contemns  them that Thailand holds agriculture as a major occupation. Water is the most important factor for is composed of four
tributaries; Ping rive , Wang river, Yom river and Nan river where come from the northern part of the country plenty of
forest, The basin of Chao Phra Ya  river is absolutely different from the international river namely Khong River, Salaween
river in Burma, Indus river in Pakistan and Brahmaputra rive in India.

These rivers flow from the Himalaya where is covered by snow for the whole year. It's never needed while Chao Phra Ya River can be dry if there are a lot of selfish people who  cut tree for their own business and release dirty water to the river. Chao Phra Ya , is a major river in Thailand comparable  to the line of our life. If you imagine to the state of water shortage the future generations certainly obtain the difficulties.

They have to pay money for water consumption, plantations, and also agricultural products especially rice. The phrase
"fish are  abundant in river rice are abounding in the field" becomes inactive

Her majesty the queen knows that tree in the forest are constantly cut down with illegality. She campaigns to replace
them  growing the forest. Presently we should start growing forest so that it can be decelerate the drought in the next 20 years.

Her majesty the queen is much interested in forest. For example, she learns how to grow it trustfully as she realizes that plenty
of water and land humidity effect to human's life as well as cultivation. Although some Middle East countries exam more incomes   from petrol production, they disburse it for water to be clean. The slowness of trashy is included in this campaign project " Pa Rak Nam "

The queen instructed "it takes at least 3 year to afforest comparable to 10 year child. "Pa Rak Nam" project is in
charge of expelling the prohibited activity such as fire forest. Anytime the flames covers on the forest, the foresters hearts are also bummed"

Check-Dams and Irrigation

"Check-dams" are small barriers built across the direction of water flow on shallow rivers and streams for the purpose of water harvesting. The small dams retain excess water flow during monsoon rains in a small catchment area behind the structure. Pressure created in the catchment area helps force the impounded water into the ground. The major environmental benefit is the replenishment of nearby groundwater reserves and wells. The water entrapped by the dam, surface and subsurface, is primarily intended for use in irrigation during the monsoon and later during the dry season, but can also be used for livestock and domestic needs.

Thailand as an appropriate intervention for working to restore the degraded natural resource base in Northern Region and thereby help the local inhabitants to escape the widely prevalent debt-poverty-migration trap. This strategy for regenerating aquifers and increasing fresh water resources for agriculture was chosen in part because it is in keeping with the organization?s overall mission to create sustainable livelihoods, and in part in response to different funders? requests.

water scarcity, augmented by deforestation, soil erosion/runoff, and rising demand leading to unsustainable use was identified by  Thailand as one of the major contributing factors to poor agricultural yields in Thailand. Given the nature of monsoon rainfall in India, the key to meeting the country?s growing demand for water for domestic and agricultural use is to more effectively harness rainfall, the ultimate source of all freshwater resources.

Numerous studies have shown that irrigated agriculture is associated with increased agricultural production, increased employment, and increased income. Working from a sustainable livelihoods perspective, Thailand is concerned not only with aggregate levels of production or employment, but also poverty alleviation and equity in terms of the distribution of income and benefits.

In general, the primary benefits of irrigation for the rural poor, or small farmers and the land poor, can be classified into:

  • employment and income (through increased working days per hectare)
  • security against impoverishment and migration
  • improved quality of life

Small farmers and the land poor have also suffered many adverse consequences of irrigation projects in the past, particularly due to construction of large-scale dams and canals. These include:

  • relocation / displacement
  • land bought out at unfair prices by speculators.
  • increased unpaid work loads for women (from additional animal grazing responsibilities).
  • increase in disease vectors such as mosquitoes, causing a rise in water-borne diseases
  • depressed purchase prices for rain field crops caused by surpluses of irrigated crops on the market.

Despite having a centuries old tradition of using innovative small-scale water harvesting structures, Thailand has turned away from many of its indigenous technologies in recent decades in favor of imported "modern" technologies, such as large-scale dam and canal systems; electric or diesel lift irrigation; drip and sprinkler systems; tubewells and borewells. In the process, much traditional knowledge and values have been repressed or lost.

Modern solutions to water management, however, pose several problems in the Indian context, including:

  • maintenance
  • construction delays, shoddy building practices, budget overruns, official corruption
  • disparity between the irrigation capacity supposedly created and the actual irrigated area realized
  • false projected benefits and raised expectations among farmers
  • underinvestment in drainage, causing water tables to rise and leading to salinity or water logging,
  • increased rates of malaria
  • safety violations and displacement of local populations without proper recompense
  • short life of many dam-made reservoirs from unexpectedly high rates of siltation
  • low cost-effectiveness

Compared with large-scale high-tech approaches to water management, check-dams appear to be a more appropriate technology for poor rural areas such as the Northern Region. For instance, in contrast to modern large dam projects, check-dams are a lower cost and less environmentally and socially disruptive alternative for irrigation.

Check-dams do not submerge large tracts of land or alter river courses. In contrast to large dams and other, technology, skilled labor, financial resources and maintenance needed for check-dams are relatively minimal, making them more accessible to poor farmers. The initial investment made can usually be recovered in one or two seasons through the ensuing increases in agricultural production.

From an environmental perspective, small-scale water harvesting structures such as check-dams also seem to be the best choice since

  • they are a more efficient catchment system, when widely used in a watershed, than large dams
  • they help to counter some of the adverse effects of the monsoon rains by allowing for more percolation of water into the soil; helping to increase soil moisture and vegetation; reducing erosion; and possibly reducing damage from flash floods.
  • large-scale irrigation systems can never be as amenable to individual farmers needs as smaller locally based water sources.

Check-dams, like tubewells, are a decentralized form of irrigation under the control of farmers, allowing them to make micro-adjustments to their watering regimes in response to local factors and thereby to improve yields.

The wilderness society organization of Thailand
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